11 Squak Valley


Competencies: Social Studies, History

History 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history.

CBA: Meeting Needs and Wants


 

Objective: Students compare life for the early settlers and life now in Issaquah by listening to several selections from an early settler’s, Bessie Wilson Craine’s memoirs.  Then students write a journal entry as if they were Bessie.

Materials: Squak Valley; a Tale of Old Issaquah, by Bessie Wilson Craine, paper, pencil and crayons

Procedure:

  1. Read parts of Squak Valley to the students (a story of a young girl growing up in the 1880’s in Issaquah).  Recommended selections include:               
    •       Hops, pages 4-5, 49, 59 (top of page 5 and 49 have racist comments)
    •       Railroad, pages 18-19
    •       Little town of Gilman, pages 22-23 (one sentence on page 23 is racist)
    •       Gilman becomes Issaquah, pages 35-36
    •       The country school, pages 26, 50
    •       Issaquah school, page 41
    •       Haying, pages 27-28
    •       The mill and timber industry, pages 30-31, 63
    •       Coal, pages 42, 55-56
    •       The roads, pages 47-48
  2. As students listen to each selection, they can create their own illustrations of what is being described in their book.  Students share their pictures with the class to see how similar and different their interpretations of the passages were.
  3. Compare life in Issaquah now to life in Issaquah when Bessie lived here.
  4. Tell the students that they will be writing a journal entry as if they were Bessie Wilson Craine.  If students prefer, they may choose to be another person mentioned in Bessie’s memoirs.  Discuss parts of a journal entry.  This might include date, location, setting description, sketches, and an important event or an interesting situation.
  5. As a class make a two-column chart.  In the first column list key words and phrases that would be logical to include in a journal entry from the late 1800’s, such as farm chores, sewing, cooking, riding horses, playing with pets, etc.  In the second column list modern key words and phrases that would not be appropriate to include, such as cars, airplanes, any electric appliances, skyscrapers, etc..
  6. Share some of the photos in the book, Squak Valley, to help stimulate brainstorming ideas.
  7. Students write their journal entries in partners, small groups, or individually.
  8. Students share their journal entries with the class.

Downloads:

Activity 11 (DOC)
Activity 11 (PDF)
Letters to the editor re: Squak Valley

Return to Activity Guide

12 Dear Annie


Competencies: Social Studies, Civics, History

Civics 1.1.1: Understands the key ideals of unity and diversity.

Civics 1.1.2: Understands and applies the key ideals of unity and diversity within the context of the community.

History 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history.

CBA: Humans and the Environment


 

Objective: Students brainstorm possible solutions to problems that Native Americans and early settlers faced in the Issaquah area.

Materials: list of problems (see attached, print and cut into strips, one problem per strip), pencil, paper

Procedure:

  1. Discuss two or three of the difficulties early settlers and Native Americans faced in the late 1800’s.  As a class brainstorm possible solutions.  Here are several examples::
    • Our family wants to build a homestead in the Issaquah area but we can’t decide where the best location would be to set up our farm.  We are considering the top of the hill, next to the lake, or in the valley.  Where would you suggest building?
    • This winter is unusually cold.  I am concerned that my livestock (cows, sheep and horse) will get too cold in the barn.  What do you suggest I do to keep them warm and safe?
    • The settlers keep coming into our hunting and fishing areas.  They are building farms, cutting down the trees and mining in the hills.  I am concerned that they will scare away all of the wildlife and we will lose our good hunting grounds.  What should I tell these strangers that keep moving in to our woods?
  2. Explain to the students that the early settlers and Native Americans have written some of their problems and are asking advice on how to solve the problems.  Their job is to respond with suggestions. They will be “Annie,” the columnist who gives advice.
  3. Copy the list of problems on the following page and cut them into separate strips of paper (one problem on each piece of paper).
  4. Put students in partners or small groups.  Students draw one strip of paper with the problem written on it.  Read the problem to the students and make sure they understand the problem.  Together, they apply their knowledge of historic circumstances to create viable solutions to the problem.
  5. Students respond orally or with short written replies.
  6. As a follow up lesson, students can write their own letters, posing problems, exchange letters, and again, respond with a solution.
  7. As a conclusion to the activity, compare the resources that were available to the early settlers and Native Americans and resources that are available to us now.  Discuss why some problems that were serious then are no longer problems for us today.

Downloads:

Activity 12 (DOC)
Activity 12 PDF)
Questions for Annie

Return to Activity Guide

13 Living Without Lights


Competencies: Social Studies, History

History 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history.

CBA: Meeting Needs and Wants


 

Objective: Students examine objects that were used in the past as substitutes for their modern day electric devices (washboards for washing machines, stereograph for T.V. or movies, toy bank for electronic toys, rug beater for a vacuum, curling iron without plug for modern curling irons that heat electronically, hair curlers, or perms).

Materials: washboard with handmade soap and clothespin, rug beater, curling iron, stereo viewer or toy bank, Ball-Mason jar

Procedure:

  1. Explain to students that everyday life was very different before people had electricity.  Students name all of the devices they use each day that require electricity.
  2. Ask students, “What would you use to get your work done and to entertain yourself if you did not have electricity to power your oven, washing machine, television, lights, hair dryer, radio, computers, etc.?”
  3. Let students brainstorm any tools or objects that they know of that pioneers used in place of our modern day appliances.  Do not discuss the items that are in the history kit.
  4. Hold up the washboard, and ask students if they can guess what it was used for.  Look for clues:
    • What is it made out of?
    • Does it have a handle or place to grasp it?
    • Do you think it was used to clean, entertain, make something else?
    • Who do you think used it?
    • What do you think it was used for?
    • What modern day convenience has replaced it?
  5. Play a detective guessing game.  Allow all reasonable guesses.  Slowly provide clues that allow the children to guess the object’s actual use.   For example, with the washboard, show the students the homemade soap that would be used with the washboard.  Tell them that the lower portion of this object was usually submerged in a pan of water when it was being used.  Show them the wooden clothespin and tell them someone would use this after they used the washboard.
  6. When students have correctly guessed what the object is, discuss how life has changed with the modern replacement.
  7. Continue the detective guessing game with each of the items.
  8. In conclusion, discuss changes in values, beliefs, and attitudes that have resulted from new technology.

Downloads:

Activity 13 (DOC)
Activity 13 (PDF)

Return to Activity Guide

14 Quilting


Competencies: Social Studies, History

History 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history.

CBA: Meeting Needs and Wants


 

Objective: Students learn about Beryl Baxter, Issaquah’s matriarch, renowned in the community for her quilting.  Find out how pioneer girls learned math and geometry through quilting and needlepoint. The make a class quilt from fabric or construction paper, each quilt block piece depicting a different aspect of Issaquah history.

Materials: article on Beryl Baxter, “Issaquah’s famous quilter once cut wood for a living”; article on girls, geometry and quilting, “Virtuous Habits of Perseverance” (this article can be found in the back of the binder in sheet protectors); quilt pattern coloring sheets, quilt sample

Procedure:

  1. Share highlights from the article about Beryl Baxter with the class.  If students are not familiar with quilts (piecing together material to make a blanket), define the term.  Share the quilt sample from the kit.  Ask students why they think people used different kinds of materials to make a quilt (for fun, attractiveness, practical reasons – pieces were left over from worn out clothes or previous blankets, couldn’t always afford that much new material).
  2. Explain that girls in the past often learned geometry, the study of shapes, and math by sewing.  Hold up the article about girls and math showing the students the quilt samples and the diary sketches.  Ask students what shapes they see in the quilts and the sketches (square, rectangles, circles, triangles, stars, hexagons, etc.  Ask why they think the article is about girls, why not boys (traditionally in America, girls did the sewing).  Is that true today (no, anyone can sew, although more women continue to sew than men).
  3.  Draw freehand a simple checkerboard square pattern on the board.  Make it a sloppy, quick drawing.  Ask the class if it looks like a good quilt pattern.  Ask them how they think the pattern could be improved (measuring, taking your time).  Ask students if they were going to make a quilt, why it would be important to know how to measure (get the quilt to fit the bed, make the pieces the same lengths or it would look messy, cut the right number of pieces).
  4. Discuss how it was considered a great skill to have neat, even lines and shapes that matched perfectly.  Discuss other skills that girls were expected to learn by sewing, beyond mathematics, such as perseverance, attention to detail, self-discipline, etc.  Teachers may want to select portions of the “Virtuous Habits of Perseverance” article to read to the class.
  5. Show students the quilt pattern coloring sheets.  Have students identify shapes they see and count the number of times a shape or pattern repeats.
  6. Let students select their own quilt pattern to color.  Encourage them to experiment with different colors to see what different materials would look like in a quilt that had such a pattern.
  7. Explain that the class is going to make a quilt together.  This quilt is going to be made out of shapes (probably squares).  The shapes must be measured to ensure that it fits together and has a uniform look when complete.  This quilt is going to have pictures instead of designs.
  8. Make a class quilt on fabric or paper.  Each student creates a block that represents a specific part of Issaquah’s history.  Teachers might want to help inspire ideas for quilt square pictures using the timeline, photos, or artifacts from the kit.  Make sure there is a wide variety of Issaquah history represented (so the quilt for example does not have 8 logging scenes and 10 coalmining scenes).
  9. When finished, display the class quilt in the hallway, office or library.

Extensions:

  1. Have students actually measure squares or shapes to fit a specific area, as one would to make a quilt.
  2. Use tanagram pieces from a math curriculum to let students experiment with shapes and designs.  Let students trace and color their patterns onto grid paper.
  3. Using grid paper, let students create their own quilt patterns.

Downloads:

Activity 14 (DOC)
Activity 14 (PDF)
Supplemental Materials

Return to Activity Guide

15 Making Butter


Competencies: Social Studies, History

History 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history.

CBA: Meeting Needs and Wants


 

Objective: Students make butter just as the early settlers did. They look at an actual butter mold and press, and read an article about the history of butter presses.

Materials: article “Butter Prints & Molds” by Anne Colby (see attached), in kits 1 and 2 there are separate butter molds and presses, in kits 3 and 4 there is one mold with the press design already engraved in the mold, chilled whipping cream, clean baby food jars, crackers

Procedure:

  • Ask students if they eat butter or margarine at home.  Ask them what it looks like (wrapped sticks or in plastic tubs) and where their parents buy it (local grocery store).   Ask students where they think the butter comes from before it gets to the store.  Discuss how butter is made (comes from cows).
  • Read the article Butter Prints & Molds to the class.  Discuss how pioneers made butter.
  • Share and discuss the butter mold/press.  These are for viewing and discussing only, not to use.
  • Tell the students that they will get to make butter the way that pioneers did.
  • Pour 1-2 teaspoons of whipping cream into each clean baby food jar.
  • Shake the jar for several minutes until the cream turns to butter.  Chilled cream will form into butter faster.
  • Spread the homemade butter onto crackers and enjoy.

Downloads:

Activity 15 (DOC
Activity 15 (PDF)
Butter Prints & Molds

Return to Activity Guide

16 Issaquah Pioneer Life Game


Competencies: Social Studies, Economics

Economics 2.2: Understands how economic systems function.

CBA: Humans and the Environment

CBA: Meeting Needs and Wants


 

Objective: Students choose an occupation specific to Issaquah’s history and experience the joys and difficulties of pioneer life as they play a game.

Materials: The Issaquah Pioneer Game, four game pieces, related photos, shoe-lasts, coal, coal miner’s hat, railroad spike, quilt square, homemade soap, washboard, rug beater, and hops, Photo Prompts Power Point (Work section).

Procedure:

  • Ask students what jobs they think the early pioneers in Issaquah had.  Share photos and objects in the kit that are associated with logging, coalmining, work at home, dairy farming, hops, railroad depot master, and shoe repair, and teacher with their class.
  • Show students the “Work” section in the photo prompts slide show.
  • Explain that early pioneers had many different jobs, but four of the jobs named were the primary, early careers of Issaquah.
  • Introduce “The Issaquah Pioneer Game.”
  • Discuss possible occupation choices.
  • Explain the rules for the game.
  • In groups of four, children can take turns playing the game.  This can be set up as a learning center or an assigned activity.
  • When everyone in the class has had a chance to play the game, discuss what students learned about Issaquah’s past from playing the game.

Extension:

1.  Invite a parent volunteer to come in and play this game with students.

Downloads:

Activity 16 (DOC)
Activity 16 (PDF)
Issaquah Pioneer Game board
Issaquah Pioneer Game instructions
Issaquah Pioneer Game cards
Photo Prompts slide show

Return to Activity Guide

17 Our Diverse Community


Competencies: Social Studies, History

History 4.2.2: Understands how economic systems function.

CBA: Humans and the Environment

CBA: Meeting Needs and Wants


 

Objective: Students learn that the people who settled in what is now the Issaquah area, came from many different places.  Students then research and document their own family tree and by doing so, discover that their family also contributes to the different ethnic, racial, religious and social groups that make up their local community.

Materialslaminated world map, family information pages and photos, bulletin board, string, thumb tacks, family tree worksheet (see attached), pencil

Procedure:

Part 1: Issaquah Families

  1. Discuss how long students have lived in Issaquah.  Did any of the students move here from another location?  Did anyone’s parents or grandparents move here from another town, city, state, or country?
  2. Ask, “Who were the first people to live in the Issaquah area?”  (Native Americans) and “Who came to the area next?” (Early settlers from the east coast, Midwest, and other countries, including about 40 people from China that were run out of Issaquah in a matter of days).
  3. Share the family information cards and photos of the early settlers.  Discuss how far each family had to travel from their original home to Issaquah.  Discuss how they probably made that journey (no planes or cars then).
  4. Create a bulletin board display as a class by pinning up the world map.  Then add each family card and photo in the space around the map.  Connect the family card and photo to the place on the map from which the family came.  Place a thumbtack on the country or state in which the family started.  Tie a string from the thumbtack on the state/country to the thumbtack holding up the family card and photo.  For example, the Castagno family came to Issaquah from Italy, so the thumbtack holding the Castagno family card will have a string tied to it, leading to a thumbtack in Italy, showing where they came from.
  5. Explain to the class this is only a small number of families that came to the Issaquah area.  Many other families have come from many other places.  Where did their families live before they moved to Issaquah?

Part 2: Family Tree

Note to teacher: Use professional discretion in giving this assignment.  Some children may have sensitive issues surrounding extended or immediate family information (adoptions, recent and difficult divorces, parents not involved in their child’s life, etc.).  Some families may find gathering this information to be difficult, uncomfortable, or impossible.

  1. Discuss the purpose of keeping a family tree or record.  Discuss what a family tree looks like.
  2. Discuss the items that belong on a family tree.  Family trees may include; names of family members, birth, marriage and death dates, short stories, or photos.  Discuss how many years a family tree might document (anywhere from two or three generations to thousands of years).
  3. Share the Tibbett’s family tree as an example.  This family was one of the first to settle in Issaquah.
  4. Share the “Family Tree” worksheet, or let students create their own.  Discuss how additional information can be added, such as aunts, uncles, cousins, great grandparents, birth dates, etc.  Set guidelines for expectations; what must be included on their family tree and what is optional.
  5. This activity works best as a homework assignment, as most children will need assistance from adults in their family to complete their family tree.
  6. Share the completed family trees as a class and discuss when each student’s family came to the Issaquah area.

Downloads:

Activity 17 (DOC)
Activity 17 (PDF)
Family Summaries
Family Tree worksheet
Sample family tree

Return to Activity Guide

18 Town Name


Competencies: Social Studies, Social Studies

Social Studies Skills 5.1: Uses critical reasoning skills to analyze and evaluate positions.

Social Studies Skills 5.1.2: Evaluates if information is clear, specific, and detailed.


 

Objective: Students discover the fascinating history behind the four names that people have called the area that is now known as Issaquah.

Materials: three newspaper articles “Name Game – What to Call the City?”, “What the ‘Squak’ is all about”, and the article from Ripley’s Believe It Or Not!

Procedure:

  1. Start this activity by reading the first sentence from the Ripley’s Believe It Or Not! article, “Four members of the Cowell Family all were born in the same house but in different towns.”  Ask the class how they think this could be possible.
  2. Ask the class if they would believe that the house mentioned in the article is here in Issaquah and that the Cowell family lived here at the turn of the century.  Ask if anyone has ever heard any of Issaquah’s previous names.  Does anyone know how many names Issaquah has had?  Does anyone know what the current name, Issaquah, means or where it came from?
  3. Brainstorm reasons why names of locations sometimes change.  (Different focus at different times in history based on occupations or environmental surroundings, named for important or influential people, nick names that catch on, etc.)
  4. Write the names of the children in the Cowell family on the board, the dates they were born and the town name at the time.
  5. Explain to the students that they can find out more information about the name of their town and why it has changed from other newspaper articles.  Read the article “Name game – what to call the city?”
  6. Does anyone in the class have the same name as someone else or a similar name?  Does it ever get confusing?  This is why the name changed from Gilman to Olney at the post office.  There was a town in Washington State already called Gilmer.  This name was so close in spelling to Gilman that they changed the post office name to Olney.  Has anyone heard of an area called Gilman?  Gilman Village is a modern shopping area.  The buildings in Gilman Village are historic homes, stores and barns turned into shops.
  7. Do we know all about the names that our town has had?  Actually, there is much more to the original name that Squak came from.  We can find more information by reading other articles.  Read the article “What the ‘Squak’ is all about.”
  8. If you were to rename the town Issaquah.  What name would you choose and why?

Downloads:

Activity 18 (DOC)
Activity 18 (PDF)
Supplemental articles

Return to Activity Guide

19 What If?


Competencies: Social Studies, Geography

Geography 3.2: Understands human interaction with the environment.

CBA: Humans and the Environment


 

Objective: Students discover how differing environments have provided varying opportunities and limits for human activity in the Issaquah area..

Materials: book Preserving the Stories of Issaquah, paper, pencil

Procedure:

  1. Identify the major industries that contributed to Issaquah developing into a town.  Use the following selections from Preserving the Stories of Issaquah.  These are memories of Issaquah residents:Discuss where in Issaquah each of these industries took place and why.
  2. Sawmills:

    • page 37 by Urban Masset
    • page 38 by Walt Seil
    • page 38 by Donna Pedegana Arndt
    • page 39 by Wilma (Nikko) Hill

    Mining:

    • page 40 by Rachel Darst
    • page 41 by Nancy Horrocks
    • page 41 by Marian Stefani Hampton

    Farming and Dairies:

    • page 44 by Eric Erickson
    • page 44 by Peechie Bergsma Stefani
    • page 45 by Peechie Bergsma Stefani
    • page 45 by Lenore Martinell
    • page 46 by David Waggoner
    • page 46 by Peechie Bergsma Stefani
  3. Discuss where in Issaquah each of these industries took place and why.
    • Why did they mine in the hills and near the creeks? The coal seams were in the hills and coal was first found in the creeks.
    • Why were there dairy farms in the valley? The soil was rich and perfect for grazing after the thick forests had been cleared.
    • Why did they log the area? Originally, the Issaquah area was a dense forest, full of huge cedar trees, that grew straight and tall.  These trees were perfect for building material.  There were sawmills near the lake because the lake provided easier transportation for the lumber.
  4. Now play a “What if…” game.  How would the development of Issaquah have been different if the environment was different?  Use the prompts below to get students thinking about how differing environments provide varying opportunities and limits for human activity.  Students can either brainstorm a scenario of how Issaquah would have been different or write their ideas in a short story.
  5. Share the results and discuss the effects that changing the environment had on the stories about Issaquah.

Downloads:

Activity 19 (DOC)
Activity 19 (PDF)
What if? (DOC)
What if? (PDF)

Return to Activity Guide

20 Children Now and Then


Competencies: Social Studies, History

Geography 3.2.2: Understands the cultural universals of place, time, family life, economics, communiocations, arts, recreation, food, clothing, shelter, transportation, government and education.


 

Objective: Students compare and contrast a child’s life at school and at play, now and 100 years ago.

Materials: School section of photo prompt slide show, McGuffey spelling book, McGuffey reading book, slate, chalk for the slate, string or shadow book, deck of cards, marbles, jacks, top, tiddly winks, Edison record, stereograph or toy bank, article for teachers “Early Schools in Issaquah Area” (see attached)

Note to teacher: There are five Issaquah History Kits. The materials listed above are divided amongst the four kits.  When there are two items listed, such as toy bank or stereograph, this designates that each kit will contain one or the other, not both.

Procedure:

  1. Look at a historic school photo in the kit.  How do students think life was different and the same for children 100 years ago?  The following are some questions to stimulate a brainstorm:
    • Did children go to school?
    • Did they have friends?
    • Did they have homework?
    • What kind of chores did they have?
    • What kind of games did they play?
    • Did they dress the same?
  2. Examine the photo closely.  What are the ages of the children in the photo?  How many teachers are there?  Discuss multi-age, one-room schools.  Why were children of all different ages in the same class?  (These were all of the children in the entire area.  There were not enough students to create a grade for every age group.)  Do some of the children have the same cloth pattern on their clothes? (Families bought material and made clothes for many family members out of the same piece of cloth.)
  3. Ask students, if they were one of these children in the photo, which child would they be and why?  With whom would they like to meet and be friends with in the photo?
  4. Share the slate and chalk and discuss how limited resources were for early pioneer schools compared to today (slates instead of paper, chalk instead of paints, crayons, pens, pastels, colorful construction paper, fewer text books, one dictionary for the entire school/no library filled with fun children’s books).
  5. Teach a lesson from a McGuffey reading or spelling book.
  6. Try some of the games that children played 100 years ago.  There are hand shadow or string books, jacks, cards, marbles, tiddly winks, and tops.  These can be set up as a learning center or as assigned activities for students to explore.
  7. The stereograph and Edison records are antiques and should only be used with teacher supervision.
  8. After students have had an opportunity to play these games, compare and contrast how games are similar or different from games children play today.  Are there any games that children played 100 years ago that are still popular games today?  Are there any games that were played in the past that students would like to own and play with today?

Downloads:

Activity 20 (DOC)
Activity 20 (PDF)
Early Schools article
Photo Prompt Slide Show

Return to Activity Guide